Leukocytes – whatare they?
Leukocytes together with red blood cells and platelets are among the most important components of blood. They are one of the immune system elements, which they create along with special proteins and the lymphatic organs: bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph glands and lymphoid nodules. The immune system is responsible for the protection of our organism against substances and microbes which may, in any way, put it at risk. The main task of leukocytes is searching for all types of enemies and combating them, as well as immunological supervision of the organism’s cells, i.e. eliminating cells which have died or act differently than they should.
White blood cells vary both in terms of structure as well as the functions performed.Considering the presence or the lack of granularity in cytoplasm, two groups were distinguished: granulocytes and
• neutrophilthen decomposition of substances and microbes. They are activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines for the process of phagocytosis. In the granularity of neutrophils there are enzymes necessary for the digestion of the absorbed ‘alien’. Many mediators .
• eosinophilic. They also have the capacity for with mast cell.
• basophilicIgE immunoglobulins, they are stimulated to allergic and anaphylactic reactions.
T ymphocytes –
Treg Lymphocytes – hamper the immunological response, including self-aggression, and release cytokines. They build organism tolerance to alien antigens.
NKT ymphocyteslymphocytes NK cells.
- NKCells– in the past they were classified as lymphocytes and, even though they are formed from the same stem cell as lymphocytes, they don’t go through the phase of maturity in the thymus or lymph nodes. Their composition and manner of acting are similar to T lymphocytes, however, they can’t recognize antigens, only differentiate them as safe or unsafe.The main task of NK cells is participation in the early phases of non-specific response and immunologic supervision, which relies on detecting and and killing cancer-changed cells or damaged cells no longer performing their function.
- Monocytes– the largest white blood cells having the capacity for phagocytosis and ameboid movement. They can also move outside of the vascular lumen. They clean blood of pathogens and the remains of dead cells, and release cytokines. This diversity of white blood cells allows for quick and precise defensive reactions. Unfortunately, sometimes the immune system detects its own tissue as alien (autoimmune diseases), as well as food particles (allergies and hypersensitivity to foods).